War On Drugs Fuels Deadly Prison Riots In Brazil

According to Reuters, prison riots in Brazil have claimed the lives of more than 100 prisoners in the last few days. This article was first published October 20, 2016. It examines the causes of these violent and ongoing uprisings.

Brazil has a problem with prisons. Recent crises have raised concerns about mass incarceration and overcrowding as well as the lawlessness, inhumanity, and lawlessness of Brazil’s prisons. These issues are not new, but they are frequently ignore.

At least 18 prisoners were kill in two separate prison riots that occurred on October 15. Three dozen inmates managed to escape from a Sao Paulo prison in the next day after a riot started there.

This is a shocking, but not unusual event in Brazil. Up to 200 people died in mass prison uprisings that took place inside and outside prisons in May 2006.

A Human Rights Prison Disaster

Brazil is home to the fourth largest prison population in the globe. More than 600,000 people held in prisons that overcrowd and do not respect their basic rights.

The cells are dark and moldy, with no windows. They smell like urine and feces. Dozens of men vie for the same space on the ground. Because the standard menstruation provision is insufficient, some Sao Paulo jails are fill with breadcrumbs.

Brazil’s prison conditions can describe as cruel and inhumane, to put it mildly. Human Rights Watch declared Brazil’s prison conditions a human rights catastrophe.

Brazil is home to excellent legislation that protects prisoners. The 1984 Penal Execution Law outlines in detail the rights of Brazil’s convicts. These include education, payment to labour, health services, and conjugal visits.

Nearly All Of These Rights Are Completely Ignored

The Association for Prison Reform was founded in 2002 by the Center for Studies on Public Security and Citizenship. I was a cofounder and director of this organization. It sought to legal challenge the horrible prison conditions in Rio de Janeiro.

Alvin Bronstein (now deceased) was brought in as a consultant to help us prepare the case. Bronstein, who had been the director of the National Prison Project at the American Civil Liberties Union for over 20 years, had extensive experience litigating for prisoners’ rights.

Bronstein told me that the Penal Execution Law in Brazil described in detail the rights of Brazilian prisoners. He said it would be a cakewalk. Bronstein note that the 8th Amendment, which prohibits cruel or unusual punishment, was use in the United States to win the most difficult cases.

Bronstein didn’t know that Brazil is a country where some laws are able to stick and others don’t. After three years of litigation, Bronstein was inform by a local judge that the law was a program and that the state should follow it only when funds allow.

A piece of federal legislation that is not applicable to the absence of funds is consider nonexistent.

Corruption Is A Real Threat Prison

Another risk is corruption. Prisons that are hugely overcrowd, poorly managed, and underfunded pose a serious threat. In the absence of the government, different gang leaders can seize power and provide services that are not provided by the state to impose their will through force.

Evidence suggests that the Primeiro Comando da Capital was behind the prison riots of October 15, which occurred in the wake of a violent criminal gang from Sao Paulo.


Canada And Mexico Get Rich Trading Marijuana

Donald Trump, the president of the United States, is proud of his rich business acumen. However, America may be getting a really bad deal because of Trump’s protectionism. When it comes North America’s next major market: marijuana.

A campaign promise was fulfill when Justin Trudeau, Canada’s Prime Minister. Presented on April 13 a bill for legalizing cannabis for recreational use (medical marijuana is legal in Canada since 2001).

Mexico’s Congress likewise followed suit two weeks later and passed a bill authorizing cannabis use for scientific and medical purposes.

Two of the three North American nations are well-position to unlock an industry. Estimated to be worth US$7.2 billion according to Forbes magazine. It is expected to grow at a compound annual rate 17%.

On the US’s other hand, a protectionist government has threatened to pull out of the “terrible” North American Free Trade Agreement. They also actively relaunched their drug war. The president of America may let his country miss the cannabis boom, according to reports.

Prohibition Is A Commercial Rich Disaster

The medical marijuana industry is growing. The pharmaceutical industry has significant potential for developing cannabinoids (a non-psychoactive component of marijuana) and tetrahydrocannabinol, which is the ingredient that gives users high.

Scientifically, marijuana has been shown to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy, relieve chronic pain and treat glaucoma. Many fields of inquiry are still untap due to the strict US laws that have made cannabis a Schedule I drug. This is the most restricted category and only applies to substances that have no accepted medical use.

Pharma companies want to disprove this thesis further, knowing that they will soon have the ability to patent cannabis-based drugs in Canada and Mexico. Patients and doctors have also pleaded for the lifting of restrictions on medical marijuana research within the US.

Eight states in the US and Washington, DC have legalized recreational marijuana. There are 29 states and the capital that have legalized medical marijuana.

US Attorney General Jeff Sessions

This fact is consistently overlooked by US Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Homeland Security chief John Kelly, who have incorrectly call marijuana a dangerous gateway drug.

Trump’s administration determine to reform prohibitionist policies. Sessions ordered federal prosecutors in a dramatic rollback of Barack Obama’s compassionate approach to nonviolent drug offenders to charge all suspects with any drug-related offense that is most serious, readily provenable offence, or whatever crime entails harsh punishment.

Law enforcement will be well aware of the implications this move could have. According to NGO Human Rights Watch, in 2015 marijuana arrests outnumbered those for all violent crimes, including murder and sexual assault, 574,000 to 505,681.

Commercial Rich Consequences

America’s drug war is also having commercial consequences. The US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has conducted research that focuses primarily on the negative effects and not its potential medical benefits.

Medical trials on humans require authorization from multiple federal agencies. These include the Department of Health and Human Services and the Food and Drug Administration. The Drug Enforcement Agency is require for illegal substances. This makes it difficult to get clearance for cannabis trials.

Research is discourage by inconsistencies between state and federal legislation. They don’t offer a legal basis for patenting cannabis-based medicines. Potential investors in medical marijuana must consider criminal prosecution as well as corporate competition.

The industry’s potential growth remains limited because of the difficulty of American marijuana producers to obtain investment financing.


Revive Extinct Aurochs To Restore Ancient

The reintroduction and rehabilitation of species is often the basis of rewilding or restoration of lands. What happens if the species you wish to reintroduce is no longer available? What happens if the animal you want to reintroduce is no longer only extinct locally, but has disappeared forever?

This may sound like Jurassic Park. This is happening in real life with the Aurochs (Bos primigenius). Since the death of the last cattle in 1627 in Poland, this wild ancestor has lost.

Aurochs have been a part of the human mind for as long time as humans have existed, as evidenced by their prominent status in cave art. The advent of agriculture and domestication led to the extinction of this magnificent animal.

Bring The Aurochs Back Lands

Why, and how can we bring the Aurochs back? What is the likelihood of this outcome?

Aurochs are represent in cave paintings. Some fossil remains have found. There are also some historical descriptions. Commentarii de bello Gallico, the Roman emperor Julius Caesar wrote, Their strength is extraordinary.

The historical record of this animal is very sparse, despite its former wide range of habitat (from the Fertile Crescent and the Iberian Peninsula to Scandinavia and the Indian subcontinent), but it has a lot of history. It is likely that its behaviour, size, and temperament have changed across environments. Despite these variations, the Auroch survived to modern times as the primordial, powerful, and immense ox.


Today’s theory is that Aurochs’ traits have survive and genetically distribute among its descendants. These traits can be re-create by breeding them together and choosing offspring with more Aurochs-like traits. This is call back-breeding, literally: breeding backwards.

Two brothers, Lutz Heck and Heinz Heck, were the first to try to revive the Aurochs. They had an undeniable Nazi party affiliation

The Heck cattle, also known as the Heck, was create in 12 years. It combines domestic cattle with Spanish fighting bulls. The brothers were more concerned with size and aggression than the Anatomical Description of the Aurochs. Heck cattle are not consider extinct today because of this.

Heck cattle survive World War II and now found in pastures and zoos across Europe. Although they are not Aurochs, many people find that they can do the Aurochs’ work just fine. They are use as grazers in Oostvaardersplassen, a Dutch nature reserve.

Recreate Wilderness Lands

It was believe that Europe’s landscape before the arrival of humans was mostly forest for most of the 20th Century. Frans Vera, a Dutch biologist proposed that Europe’s primeval landscape was compose of meadows, forests, and other habitats. He argued that this is because large animals, such as the Aurochs, would have created this landscape using their grazing behavior, now called natural grazing.

Vera founded the Oostvaardersplassen to prove that he is correct. To see what happens to the land when there are many grazers, the Heck cattle herds were created.

Many are interested in natural grazing and want to bring grazing animals onto new land to create a European wilderness. The drive to recreate the Aurochs is largely driven by this push for wild grazing animals.